Who is art at the service of? – 文艺到底为谁服务? – English

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Since Mao pronounced the “Yan’an speech”, art started on the road of serving politics, and art has become a political tool. Emphasising the political function of art has led to art losing its nature. And art that has lost its nature cannot flourish any more. After 1949, the political function of art has increased to the highest possible point, and the result is that the flowers of art have withered, and no work as good as those before 1949 has been produced.

After the reform and opening, art has gradually moved away from politics, and developed its own characteristics. However, under the characteristics of a market economy, art for art’s sake in the end faces the risk of freedom. If it fits in with the market, art can jump on the chariot of development and prosper. If art does not fit in with the market, it will struggle to prosper, at least in the short-term.

文艺的主体是艺术家,他们也需要生活,也要活出质量来,艺术家们大分化也是大势所趋。A small number of artists are still loyal to their art, and uphold the principle of artistic freedom. 另一部分人被市场同化,一切随着市场走,市场需要什么样的方艺,艺术家们就搞什么样的文艺,市场不需要什么样的文艺,艺术家们也不会由着自己的性子来。

那些随着市场大潮走的人,就慢慢变成了市场的奴隶。文艺的粗俗化、欲望化、情色化、媚俗化、肉欲化就不可避免。人性与人格尊严,人性自由与平等就显得没有市场。比如,赵本山的小品就是粗俗化的一个典型代表,他的大部分小品都是蔑视人的尊严的小品。

在这样的背景下,习近平2014年10月15日上午在京主持召开文艺工作座谈会并发表重要讲话。习近平强调,文艺不能在市场经济大潮中迷失方向,文艺不能当市场的奴隶,不要沾染铜臭气。

文艺不能成为市场的奴隶,寻么文艺会成为什么样的奴隶呢?回到毛泽东的时代,让文艺成为权力的奴隶,成为政治的奴隶,让文艺政治化是没有出路的。如果走文艺政治化的老路,还不如走向市场化,成为市场的奴隶。市场奴隶是比权力奴隶更进步的奴隶化阶段。市场化至少意味着平等竞争,只有在市场上竞争获胜的作品才能走向大众。市场化、粗俗化也是人们的一种自由,自由就比权力强制好。文艺作品的市场化还具有成为好作品的可能性与现实性。相比较而言,在权力化背景下,不可能出现好作品。

从理想的状态来说,文艺应该成为自身的主人。刚刚上演的《黄金时代》告诉我们一个基本道理,萧红既没成为权力的奴隶,也没成为市场的奴隶,她成为自己的主人,所以,才成就了萧红的作品。获得诺贝尔文学奖的莫言,因为忠实于自己的内心感受,成为自己写作的主人,才成就了莫言。刚获得卡夫卡奖的阎连科,因为忠实于自己苦难的感受,忠实于自己的“煎熬”,才成就了阎连科。阎连科的“盲人”情结使他在让自己看不到光明的同时,却握着手电筒照亮了别人行进的路。

一个作家只有为自己写作,为自己的良知写作,不屈从于外在的压力,不甘心于外在的强制,为自己的自由不断地抗争,才成就伟大的作家,才让时代感受作家自由的呼吸。

文艺作品种类繁多,远远不仅是文学作品。如果每一个文艺工作者都能成为自己的主人,为自己的良知与自由写作,那么文学每天都是春天,并不能领导人讲了一个话就是春天。如果文艺工作者总是为权力写作,争当权力的奴仆,那么文艺每一天都是冬天。领导人的讲话就会使冬天进入严冬,无论什么好的文艺作品都会在严冬中活活冻死。赵本山连夜和他的弟子学习总书记的讲话,这种争当权力的宠儿奴隶的作法很显然让文艺的冬天提前来到。

文艺作品在忠实于自己的良知与自由时,自由也就有了文学市场,文学市场也就自然繁荣起来。诚如哈耶克所言,每一个人在追求个人自由的时候,自然也就形成了自生自发的秩序。自由对社会的助益性往往并不是有意为之。文学市场的繁荣,在于文学自由的创造力,文学自由的创造力有助于整个社会心灵的提升,那些低品味、无格调的东西终归会被文学市场的自由所淘汰。



Source : 21ccom

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September 2, 2015 @ 07:57:40Current Revision
Content
<p>Since Mao pronounced the "Yan'an speech", art started on the road of serving politics, and art has become a political tool. Emphasising the political function of art has led to art losing its nature. And art that has lost its nature cannot flourish any more. After 1949, the political function of art has increased to the highest possible point, and the result is that the flowers of art have withered, and no work as good as those before 1949 has been produced. </p> <p>Since Mao pronounced the "Yan'an speech", art started on the road of serving politics, and art has become a political tool. Emphasising the political function of art has led to art losing its nature. And art that has lost its nature cannot flourish any more. After 1949, the political function of art has increased to the highest possible point, and the result is that the flowers of art have withered, and no work as good as those before 1949 has been produced. </p>
<p>After the reform and opening, art has gradually moved away from politics, and developed its own characteristics. However, under the characteristics of a market economy, art for art's sake in the end faces the risk of freedom. If it fits in with the market, art can jump on the chariot of development and prosper. If art does not fit in with the market, it will struggle to prosper, at least in the short-term. </p> <p>After the reform and opening, art has gradually moved away from politics, and developed its own characteristics. However, under the characteristics of a market economy, art for art's sake in the end faces the risk of freedom. If it fits in with the market, art can jump on the chariot of development and prosper. If art does not fit in with the market, it will struggle to prosper, at least in the short-term. </p>
  <p>The main body of art is represented by the artists themselves. They need to live, and they want quality of life. So there is a great difference between artists. A small number of artists are still loyal to their art, and uphold the principle of artistic freedom. Another part have assimilated to the market, they follow the market, and if the market wants one type of art, they produce it - whatever the market doesn't want, they won't do. </p>
  <p>Those people who move along with market trends, slowly become slaves to the market. It is inevitable that art will become vulgar, erotic, pornographic, kitsch, sensual. There is no market for humanity and human dignity, human freedom and equality. For instance, the small works of Zhao Benshan are a good example of the vulgarisation of art, most of his works show contempt for human dignity. </p>
  <p>It is with this kind of background that Xi Jinping hosted the forum on the arts in Beijing on the morning of October 15 2014, and delivered an important speech. Xi Jinping emphasised that art cannot be lost in the tide of the market economy, art cannot be a slave to the market, and cannot be corrupted by the fumes of wealth. </p>
  <p>Art can't become a slave to the market, but what kind of art can become what kind of slave? If we go back to Mao Zedong's era, art became a slave to power, a slave to the government, and there was no way out of the politicisation of art. So if art is going to take the road of politicisation, it might as well take that of consumerism, and become a slave to the market. Slavery to the market is a progress in relation to State slavery. In the market, at least, there is equal competition; only the works that triumph within the market can make it to the broad public. Marketisation, vulgarisation, still represent a form of freedom, and freedom is better than submission to mandatory power. The marketisation of art retains the possibility of good works coming about. In comparison, with authority as a background, no good work is possible. </p>
  <p>From an ideal point of view, art should become its own master. The recently staged play, 'The Golden Age', tells us a simple truth, Xiao Hong becomes neither a slave to power, nor a slave to the market. Only by becoming her own master does she achieve the works of Xiao Hong. Mo Yan earned the Nobel Prize for literature because he was faithful to his own feelings, and only by becoming his own master did he become Mo Yan. Yan Lianke just received the Kafka prize, because he remained faithful to his feelings of pain, his feeling of 'deep suffering', that's how he became Yan Lianke. Yan Lianke's 'blindness' complex is such that, even as he doesn't see the light himself, he holds a torch and lights the path for others. </p>
<p>文艺的主体是艺术家,他们也需要生活,也要活出质量来,艺术家们大分化也是大势所趋。A small number of artists are still loyal to their art, and uphold the principle of artistic freedom. 另一部分人被市场同化,一切随着市场走,市场需要什么样的方艺,艺术家们就搞什么样的文艺,市场不需要什么样的文艺,艺术家们也不会由着自己的性子来。</p> <p>Only if a writer writes for themselves, according to their own conscience, without yielding to external pressure or bowing to external force, but continuing to struggle for their own freedom - only then will they become a great writer, and let the centuries feel the free breathing of a writer. </p>
<p>那些随着市场大潮走的人,就慢慢变成了市场的奴隶。文艺的粗俗化、欲望化、情色化、媚俗化、肉欲化就不可避免。人性与人格尊严,人性自由与平等就显得没有市场。比如,赵本山的小品就是粗俗化的一个典型代表,他的大部分小品都是蔑视人的尊严的小品。</p>  
<p>在这样的背景下,习近平2014年10月15日上午在京主持召开文艺工作座谈会并发表重要讲话。习近平强调,文艺不能在市场经济大潮中迷失方向,文艺不能当市场的奴隶,不要沾染铜臭气。</p>  
<p>文艺不能成为市场的奴隶,寻么文艺会成为什么样的奴隶呢?回到毛泽东的时代,让文艺成为权力的奴隶,成为政治的奴隶,让文艺政治化是没有出路的。如果走文艺政治化的老路,还不如走向市场化,成为市场的奴隶。市场奴隶是比权力奴隶更进步的奴隶化阶段。市场化至少意味着平等竞争,只有在市场上竞争获胜的作品才能走向大众。市场化、粗俗化也是人们的一种自由,自由就比权力强制好。文艺作品的市场化还具有成为好作品的可能性与现实性。相比较而言,在权力化背景下,不可能出现好作品。</p>  
<p>从理想的状态来说,文艺应该成为自身的主人。刚刚上演的《黄金时代》告诉我们一个基本道理,萧红既没成为权力的奴隶,也没成为市场的奴隶,她成为自己的主人,所以,才成就了萧红的作品。获得诺贝尔文学奖的莫言,因为忠实于自己的内心感受,成为自己写作的主人,才成就了莫言。刚获得卡夫卡奖的阎连科,因为忠实于自己苦难的感受,忠实于自己的“煎熬”,才成就了阎连科。阎连科的“盲人”情结使他在让自己看不到光明的同时,却握着手电筒照亮了别人行进的路。</p>  
<p>一个作家只有为自己写作,为自己的良知写作,不屈从于外在的压力,不甘心于外在的强制,为自己的自由不断地抗争,才成就伟大的作家,才让时代感受作家自由的呼吸。</p>  
<p>文艺作品种类繁多,远远不仅是文学作品。如果每一个文艺工作者都能成为自己的主人,为自己的良知与自由写作,那么文学每天都是春天,并不能领导人讲了一个话就是春天。如果文艺工作者总是为权力写作,争当权力的奴仆,那么文艺每一天都是冬天。领导人的讲话就会使冬天进入严冬,无论什么好的文艺作品都会在严冬中活活冻死。赵本山连夜和他的弟子学习总书记的讲话,这种争当权力的宠儿奴隶的作法很显然让文艺的冬天提前来到。</p>  
<p>文艺作品在忠实于自己的良知与自由时,自由也就有了文学市场,文学市场也就自然繁荣起来。诚如哈耶克所言,每一个人在追求个人自由的时候,自然也就形成了自生自发的秩序。自由对社会的助益性往往并不是有意为之。文学市场的繁荣,在于文学自由的创造力,文学自由的创造力有助于整个社会心灵的提升,那些低品味、无格调的东西终归会被文学市场的自由所淘汰。</p>  
  <p>There is a wide range of artistic works, not all of them are literature. If every artist could become their own master, and write from their own freedom and conscience, then every day would be spring for literature, without the leaders saying a word about it being spring. If artists constantly write on behalf of power, striving to become slaves to power, then every day is winter for art. The words of the leaders make winter even colder, and all the works, no matter how good, would freeze to death in the cold. When Zhao Benshan and his disciples study the words of Secretary Zhong, this kind of attempt at becoming a slave to power will only make winter come faster. </p>
  <p>When artistic works are faithful to their own conscience and freedom, then freedom will appear on the artistic market, and the market will flourish. As Hayek said, when every individual pursues their individual freedom, a natural order forms. Freedom's utility to society is not intentional. The prosperity of the art market lies in the creativity that freedom brings, and free artistic creativity will lift up the spirit of the whole community to a higher level. And so these works of low and taste and no substance will be eliminated by freedom from the market. </p>

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