From Everest to the deserts, why am I always on the road? – 马尧:上珠峰,下三沙,为什么我一直在路上 – English

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Since MaXiao was 4 years old, he started to go to Mongolia with his father to observe birds. When he was 27 years old, he stayed at Mongolia for three months, 采集滇藏线和珠峰大本营的地貌街景,又到了中国最南端的城市——三沙市采集了西沙群岛的街景。接下来,他又奔赴长江三峡带回了江面的街景。他穿梭于全国各地,一直在路上。

文/李梓新

一架小型遥控四轴飞行器的骨架摆在巨大的办公桌上,周围散布着一些黑色的零件残骸。几天前,马尧把它升上半空,上面架着一台SONY相机,利用它来航拍空中全景。结果飞到50米高飞行器就失控炸机摔到地上。不过很快,部门领导又给他批了一架新的。

马尧今年27岁,两年前加入了腾讯街景项目,负责其中的口碑项目,用他的话说,是在部门里“拉仇恨”的工作。他先后在西藏呆了三个月,采集滇藏线和珠峰大本营的地貌街景,又到了中国最南端的城市——三沙市采集了西沙群岛的街景。接下来,他又奔赴长江三峡带回了江面的街景。

他用全景拍摄的方式,为这些景点留存影像,再拼接成全景画面,让在电脑这一端的网友也能身临其境。同时,也为这些每天都在发生变化的景观保留历史档案。

马尧并非地理或者测绘专业科班出身,而是2009年毕业于四川大学新闻系。但他从小便跟随在中科院生态地理研究所当教授的父亲积累了丰富的野外经验。从4岁起他就随父亲在新疆各地观测候鸟。大学时更自己和同学闯荡西藏。

家族里好多人都做生物方面的研究,可是马尧高考没考好,没能到北京。他选择了到川大读新闻系,并喜欢上了摄影。这条跨界的道路塞翁失马。毕业后,他到北京加入了《中国国家地理》杂志,在那里,他也有不少机会穿梭于全国各地。

他对摄影和地理的爱好最终在“街景”这个方向上结合到一起。自谷歌于2007年5月25日推出街景功能以来。这一应用已经拓展到全球40多个国家超过3000个城市。而在中国,却仅涵盖了中国成都大熊猫繁育研究基地。腾讯SOSO地图在2011年底推出了街景服务。后来百度地图在2013年8月加入了街景竞争。

马尧的父亲给他起这个名字,是希望他能“骁勇善战”,他觉得自己也属于勇敢的人,敢于尝试不同的东西。因此,从小被蛇咬过,在新疆博斯腾湖观测天鹅时差点溺毙,在西藏阿里无人区翻过车,前后车相距20公里无人救援……这些生死经历使他更加懂得珍惜当下,手腕也缠上了一串西藏活佛送的佛珠。

三明治:讲讲你小时候的生活经历吧。

马尧:我是新疆乌鲁木齐人。我的父亲叫马鸣,是中科院新疆生态与地理研究所的教授,他主要从事野生动物保护,鸟类分类学,生物多样性与动物生态学方面的研究工作。。我在研究所大院长大,从小我的寒暑假都是陪父亲在野外出差做研究,第一次是在4岁的时候,跟父亲到巴音布鲁克看天鹅。我从小养过的动物包括老鹰、猫头鹰、狐狸、刺猬等等。比如要帮老鹰清理粪便,它的粪便是稀的,而且具有腐蚀性,还是喷射出来的。我就被鸟粪喷过好多次。

著名科学家彭加木带回的中国第一个野骆驼的标本,就放在我爸爸工作单位楼里的大厅,我从小就抱着那骆驼大腿骨骼转着玩。那时彭加木教授已经消失在罗布泊中了……周围的邻居都是老科学家,随手就会送我两块化石。我就是在这样的环境长大的。

三明治:大学毕业后你是怎么得到加入《中国国家地理》的机会的?

马尧:大学里我也经常出去玩,大二的时候就和同学到西藏玩了一圈。所以我的野外生活和工作的经历比较丰富。

大学毕业的时候,我本来是想申请到美国读书的,但当时的女朋友考上北京的研究生,我又很幸运地获得《中国国家地理》的工作机会,我也就来了。当时我投的是《中国国家地理》广告部下面的策划部。因为编辑部太难进了。

在那里,我为一些越野汽车品牌设计一些策划项目,所以我经常在外面跑。在西藏阿里地区就呆了两个月,新疆、内蒙、青海这些地方更是家常便饭地跑,基本把中国渺无人烟的地方跑了个遍。

后来我对这些商业活动有些厌倦,想做一些纯粹的项目。就离开了《中国国家地理》。加入了腾讯街景。基于以往的野外经历,我负责的是能够去打响腾讯地图口碑的,方便运营传播的项目。

三明治:一到腾讯就做滇藏线项目?

马尧:其实我也是因为这个项目的策划才进的腾讯。面试的时候,部门让我做一个进藏采集路线的策划。我提交了之后,他们说我们部门目前还没有人能做这样的策划。后来就比较顺利了。

我是和两位同事于2012年8-10月去的滇藏线,我们从云南香格里拉出发,沿着滇藏公路214国道向北前行,并在214和318两条国道的交汇处芒康转行,途径左贡、八宿、波密、林芝、日喀则、拉孜、定日等十多个大小城市一路向西开进。来回走了9000多公里。我带上了当时整个部门唯一的全景云台,它是拍摄精细化街景必不可少的设备。我们找了一个藏族司机,我们一块在西藏呆了三个月。去了珠峰大本营,去了海拔5300米的拉姆拉错,这是国内目前街景采集海拔最高的地方。我去过七八次西藏,对高原适应良好。我同事高原反应就很厉害,海拔一上4500就脸色苍白,一点力气都没有。

三明治:有哪些比较难忘的经历?

马尧:去珠峰大本营的路,全是搓板路,我们的车载摄像机都颠散架了,只剩一个固定螺丝,有一个相机都颠掉了出来。当时我们到珠峰大本营还有6.9公里的路程。珠峰大本营的高清街景数据就像一个冲刺,开车走了那么远,最后这6.9公里只能自己背负相机来采集。我们就在那海拔5200米的地方背着30斤的街景设备一路走一路拍。幸亏遇见了一个往珠峰大本营运水的摩托车,让他带上我才搞定了这6.9公里,现在大家在腾讯地图上看珠峰大本营附近的街景,还可以看到地上摩托车拍摄街景的影子。在高原烂路上的颠簸经常会造成设备GPS定位中断,造成拍摄的街景无法和地图准确匹配,导致。好多次为了补全采集轨迹,让道路街景采集更加完整,我们经常折回原处补拍,这也是为什么我们在4000公里的有效采集上却行走了9000公里的原因。

三明治:还碰到哪些困难?

马尧:人和机器都要克服高原反应。电池在低温下也工作不灵,要备好充足的电源。有一次在西藏定日,没有暖气,室内外都零下10度,我们穿一身秋装被冻得哆嗦,喝了几壶酥油茶,晚上盖了三层被子才熬过来,早上睡醒放在床头的矿泉水都结了冰。

政策层面也有一些困难。当时管理非常严格。我们的车顶上架上摄像机有3米多高,一个大锅。随便一个关卡都可以拦住我们。我们在林芝就被交警要求拆卸,拆下来再装上就要3个多小时。从珠峰大本营往回撤,也被边防武警拦住了。我们只能递烟,给他们看我们拍的东西,还给他们送Q币,开通黄钻、绿钻会员才过关。幸亏他们都玩QQ。

三明治:这次拍摄出来的街景市场反响如何?

马尧:当时做出来后,因为各种原因,到了2013年2月才正式上线。过程中有审批风险。国家测绘局、军队在我们上线之前都要审。他们会把他们认为敏感的地方砍掉。这样我们拍的连续的道路有时就中断了。我们其实是全世界第一个拍摄到珠峰大本营街景的团队,可惜因为这样那样的耽搁,就在我们上线之前几天,谷歌从珠峰大本营南坡尼泊尔那段采录的街景上线,引起了很大的反响。那时我们还没开始宣传。这还是比较可惜的。现在我们有专门的运营团队了。

三明治:后来的三沙项目又是怎样启动的?刚好官方最近发布了中国竖版地图,也使南海诸岛的情况更清楚地呈现到公众面前,但岛屿上的情况究竟怎么样,相信很多人没有去过,也是非常好奇的。

马尧:我们是通过腾讯公益基金会联系到南海舰队,为我们的采集提供了帮助。一开始我比较贪心,提交了20多个岛的名单,舰队只同意我们先到三沙市政府所在地永兴岛去。我们坐的是永兴岛的补给船“琼沙三号”,从海口出发,下午出发,第二天一早到。我们是跟一批广东省文化单位组织的书法家一起去的。

三沙市的管辖范围其实只是一条街,街上有一个小餐馆,两个超市,一个银行,一个邮局,一个保险公司,一个市政府。其余的地方都是军事管辖区,没有军方许可是没有作用的。所以我们比书法家们幸运,他们只能呆一天就得走,我们住了10几天,拍摄了七八个岛。

我们是6月份去的,天气很热。晒得浑身皮肤浮肿,蜕皮。长袖也穿不住,太热了。白天在街上是看不到人的。去别的岛都是自己找渔民租船。每去一个岛要开一个证。军队还派了一个战士一直跟着我们。

三明治:岛上的生活状态是怎样的?

马尧:岛上都有渔民的,他们白天都在房间里休息,看碟消磨时间,清晨和傍晚打鱼。他们在那里一般呆三个月到半年。孩子在内陆上学,女性也很少。我们在那用微信摇一摇,摇不到大陆的朋友。

三明治:在那里你们方便使用网络工作么?

马尧:永兴岛是有3G手机网络的。但是宽带只在电信局、邮局有。我们为了往回传数据,只能提一箱饮料给邮局看门老伯。他说他喜欢喝冰绿茶,不喜欢康师傅,喜欢喝统一的。我们就照办了。他们每周只上一天班,平时在屋里上网打麻将。生活既清闲又艰苦。

我们要走之前,三沙军方派了几个参谋来审查我们的照片。哪怕一个画面里出现一点敏感设施,他们就删掉。我们一个地点通常拍30多张片子拼接起来,被他们删了哪怕一张,就拼接不起来了。他们一直审查了六七个小时。

三明治:这两个项目做下来,你们的采集技术有没有改进?

马尧:我们完成了精细化的采集。我刚来的时候,还是用手持相机来拍摄全景。一个地点拍30多张,拼图出来还有很多错位。后来我研习了很多国外的技术文献,现在可以做到一个人用脚架拍,底下连影子都没有,效果一直都在进步。

现在我们部门处理的数据量超过100TB,这些数据可以存满3200个32G的苹果土豪金手机;街景数据库容量超过2PB,相当于下载了1048576部2G的高清电影;而拍摄的照片量超200亿张,这些电子照片打印成6寸纸质照片连接起来可以绕地图75圈。

三明治:街景这个项目接下来有哪些发展和想象空间?

马尧:我们国家有大量的没有保护的古迹。比如,我们最近在做的长城项目。选取的都是野长城,它们都很漂亮,但是近几十年的破坏比较严重。我们现在正在建立街景变化的时间轴。这样可以把长城在各个时代的变迁记录下来。

最近几年,云南香格里拉独克宗古城、丽江古城都发生过大火。那些烧毁的建筑很可惜。如果我们提早留存影像,就可以为景观复原建立基础。最近清华大学联合丽江市政府就来找我们要数据,想去做古城复原。

我觉得街景是对一个城市影像的完整记录。现在的城市变化太快了。街景是我们选择的比较合适的记录方式,可以把一个城市360度拍下来,对于国家、社会变迁都有很重要的历史意义。如果放在国家、民族的角度去考虑,这是一个更大的愿景和情怀。

我们目前最新的项目是长江三峡。如果能在三峡工程开工之前去拍就好了,可惜那个时候没有这个技术。我还很想去做楼兰古城。

三明治:以后你有小孩之后,还会像你父亲培养你一样,带他到各种野外环境锻炼么?

马尧:只能说尽量了。像我们这样没有北京户口的北漂,各方面的难度还是比较大的。小孩子可能都不一定能在北京上学。我们对人生规划不了太多。

去年我生了一场大病,一只耳朵突发性耳聋。经历过一些跟自己身体息息相关的事情以后,就会觉得要珍惜当下。

像我父亲那样做生物研究的道路,我可能回不去了。现在这个街景领域,我觉得还是有不少机会的。



Source : China 30s

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March 20, 2015 @ 17:04:09Current Revision
Content
  <p>Since he was four, Ma Xiao started to go to Mongolia with his father to observe birds. He’s turning 27 this year, and already stayed in Tibet for three months, photographing the streetscape of the Yunnan-Tibet border – and also went to China’s Southernmost city, Sansha, to photographs the streets of the Paracels islands. Finally, he’s been to the Three Gorges Dam area, collective street photographs from along the river. He’s constantly shuttling from one of the country to the other, always on the road. </p>
  <p>Text: Li Zixin</p>
  <p>The skeleton of a small flying drone is lying on a huge desk, all around it are scattered broken black parts. A few days ago, Ma Yao flew it with a Sony camera strapped on its back, using this to take aerial views. But in the end, as the drone rose 50 meters up in the air, he lost control, and the machine wrecked itself on the ground. But soon, the department agreed to give him a new one. </p>
  <p>Ma Yao is 27 years old this year. Two years ago, he joined the Tencent streetscape project, <span style="color: #ff6600;">负责其中的口碑项目,用他的话说,是在部门里“拉仇恨”的工作。</span>He has worked in Tibet for three months, photographing the streetscape of the Yunnan-Tibet border – and also went to China’s Southernmost city, Sansha, to photographs the streets of the Paracels islands. Finally, he’s been to the Three Gorges Dam area, collective street photographs from along the river. </p>
  <p>He used a panoramic shot to take images of these places, then recomposing them into a complete panorama, allowing viewers to get an immersive experience on their computer. At the same time, he was able to build a historical record of these places which are changing everyday. </p>
  <p>Ma Yao did not study geography or surveying at university, he graduated in 2009 from the Sichuan University Department of journalism. From from childhood, he gained an understanding of the field by sharing the rich experience of his father, who worked as a professor with the Chinese Geographical Research Institute on Ecology. From the age of 4, he went with his father all over Xinjiang to observe migratory birds. And doing university, he went on a number of trips to Tibet, alone or with his classmates. </p>
  <p>In his family, many people do biological research, but Ma Yao didn't do well at his college entrance exam, and wasn't able to go to Beijing. He decided to study journalism at Sichuan University, and there, fell in love with photography. This turned out to be a blessing in disguise. After graduation, he moved to Beijing to join the 'China National Geographic' magazine, and there, he had many opportunities to travel all around the country. </p>
  <p>His passion for photography and geography eventually converged on the 'Street view' project. Since May 25 2007, when Google launched its 'Street View' program, the application has already expanded its program to more than 40 countries and 3000 cities. But in China, it only covered the Chengdu great panda breeding research centre. Tencent's SOSO map launched a Street View project in 2011. Later, in August 2013, Baidu joined the game and launched its own Street View. </p>
  <p>Ma Yao’s prents gave him this name in the hope that he would be ‘brave and fierce’. He himself believes he’s a brave person, with the courage to try something different. For that reason, from a snake bite as a child, almost drowning in the Xinjiang Bositen Lake while watching swans, to a car crash in Tibet, 20 km from the nearest rescue...These near-death experiences have taught him to value the moment, and wrap a bracelet of Tibetan beads around his wrist. </p>
  <p>China30s: tell us about your experience growing up.</p>
  <p>Maxiao: I am from Urumqi, My father is called Ma Ming, and he’s a professor at the Xinjiang Academy of Sciences, in the department of Ecology and Geography. Ma Ming mainly work on animal protection, studying birds collective life and animal ecology. I grew up around research centres: I went with my father to do research every winter holiday. The first time, I was four years old, my father and I went to Bayin Buluke to watch the swans. I raised many animals: eagle, owl, fox, etc. One of the things I did was help clean up the eagle droppings. They don't do often, but it's very corrosive, and comes out in a spray. I've been sprayed by eagles way too many times. </p>
  <p>The famous Scientist, Peng Jiamu brought back the first specimens of wild camels in China, and put them right in my father's work place. I have played with that camel since when I was a child. At that time, professor Peng Jiamu disappeared at Lop Nur river. My neighbours were usually old scientist. They often gave me fossils. That's the kind of environment I lived in. </p>
  <p>China30s: After graduating, how did you get the opportunity to join “China National Geographic”?</p>
  <p>MaXiao: When I was at University, I often played out of the city. On the second year of university, my friends and I went to Tibet. So I have quite a large experience with working in the wilderness.</p>
  <p>After completing university, I wanted to continue my studies in the US, but my girlfriend was admitted in a graduate school in Beijing, and I was lucky enough to get a job with the China National Geographic, so I followed. At the time, all I got was a role in the advertising section of 'China National Geographic', in the business section, because it was too hard to get into the newsroom. </p>
  <p>While I worked there, I designed a few projects for off-road 4x4 cars, so I was often outside. I spent two months in the region of Ali, in Tibet, and routinely went to Xinjiang, Qinghai and Inner Mongolia. Basically, I've been all over the sparsely populated places of China. </p>
  <p>Later on, I got tired of these commercial activities – and wanted to work on more genuine projects. So I left ‘China National Geographic’, and I joined Tencent Stree View. Based on my past experience, I was made responsible for the brand management and operational expansion of the Tencent Streetview Project</p>
  <p>China 30’s: Were you doing the Yunnan-Tibet highway project when you just joined Tencent?</p>
  <p>Ma Xiao: Actually I joined the Tencent for this project’s commissioner job. When the department interviewed me, they asked me to hand in a plan for detecting roads of Tibet. After I handed in that plan, they said that there was no one in their department who could make this kind of plan at that time. So I was hired at Tencent.</p>
  <p>From August to October in year 2012, with two colleagues of mine, I started a journey on the Yunnan-Tibet highway. We started from Shangri-La, Yunnan; went North through the Yunnan-Tibet highway g214. And then we changed directions to the Mangkang when we crossed highway g214 and g318. We passed by Zuogong, Basu, Bomi, Linzhi, RIkaze, Lazi, Dingri etc. more than ten different cities and went all the way to the west of China. We brought the only one panoramic camera in our department at that time, which is the essential equipment for our work. We hired a local Tibetan driver who worked for us and stayed there for three months. We went to the Everest Base Camp and the Lamulacuo, 5300 meters high, the highest place for street view shooting. I went to Tibet several times, and I’m, okay with altitude sickness but my colleagues felt very uncomfortable, when they stayed over 4500 meters, their faces were white as a sheet.</p>
  <p>China 30’s: Do you have any unforgettable experiences?</p>
  <p>Ma Xiao: When we were on the way to the Everest Base Camp, the road condition was very bad, our car camera almost broke, there was only one screw left before the camera fell off. We were still 6.9km away from the Everest Base Camp. The street view data of Everest Base Camp is like a rush. We had driven that far, we had to carry the camera and walked the last 6.9km by ourselves. We had to carry a 15 kg camera and other equipment, walk and take photographs at an altitude of 5200 meters. Luckily, we met a motorcycle which ransported water for Everest Base Camp, the driver gave me a ride and that's how we finished the last 6.9km. You know, everyone can still find the shadow of the motorcycle when they look at the Everest Base Camp on the Tencent Map. At the broken road in Tibet, the shaking of the car interfered with the GPS so that we couldn't match the street view with the map. To complete the working routes and complete the street view, we went back to the places that couldn’t match and took photos again. That’s also the reason why we covered 9000km on a 4000km long highway.</p>
  <p>China 30’s: What other difficulties did you have?</p>
  <p>Ma Xiao: Workers and machines all had to conquer altitude sickness. Batteries couldn’t work well at the low temperatures, so we needed to prepare well. Once we were in Dingri, Tibet, there was no air conditioner, outside and inside of the house, it was about minus 10 degrees Celsius. We didn’t wear enough clothes; we felt cold and shivered all the time. To keep warm and stayed alive, we drank a lot butter tea and slept under three quilts at night. And we found that the water that we put beside the bed was freezing.</p>
  <p>There were also many political difficulties, that was really hard at that time. Our camera on the top of the car is about 3 meters, so every checkpoint would stop us. When we were at Lingzhi, we were asked by the traffic police to get down, and it was really inconvenient. When we came back from the Everest Base Camp, we also stopped by the police. We had to give them cigarettes and let them look at the photos that we took. We gave them Q coins, and many other things for Tencent games. It’s so lucky that all of them played QQ.</p>
  <p>China 30’s: Where there any repercussions of you shooting the street market that time? </p>
  <p>Ma Xiao: After we made it, for a lot of reason, it didn’t get published until February 2013. It was examined and approved during publication. Both the NASG (National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation of China) and the army must examine our work before we publish. They cut the parts that they think are sensitive. For that reason, some Continuous roads can be broken off. Actually, we are the first group in the world who shot the road to the Everest Base Camp. Unfortunately, for several reasons, we published later than expected. Just several days before we published, the video of the road sight from he southern slope of Mount Everest base camp in Nepal shot by Google was published, and caused great repercussions. But we hadn't even start advertising at that time, and it’s really pity. Now we have a dedicated team for that.</p>
  <p>China 30’s: How did the Sansha Program start? The official website has already published a vertical version of the Chinese map that shows information on many islands in the South China Sea, more clearly presented to the public. But as for information of the islands, most people don’t know because they never been there before. And we believe the must be interested in these islands.</p>
  <p>Ma Xiao: We contacted the South Sea Fleet of the People’s Liberation Army through the Tencent Public Welfare Foundation, and they provided help for the collection. At the beginning, I was little bit greedy,and submitted a list including names of more than twenty islands. However, the fleets only allowed us go to the Yongxing Island where Sansha municipal government is. We went there by taking the tender of Yongxing Island which name is “ No.3 Yongxing”. We left from Haikou in the afternoon, and reached the island in the morning of the second day. And we went there with a calligrapher from Guangdong Province Cultural Unit.</p>
  <p>In fact, Sansha city has just one street – and the street only has one restaurant, two supermarkets, one bank, one post office, one insurance company, and the city government. All the other places are under military control, and you can't approach them without a military pass. So we were luckier than the calligraphers: they could only stay for one day, whereas we were able to stay for ten, and visited seven or eight islands. </p>
  <p>We went there in June, it was really hot. We got seriously sunburnt - eruptions, skin peeling. It was too hot to wear long sleeves. During the day, you couldn't see anybody on the street. To go to other islands, you would need to find fishermen to take you. For every island we went to, you needed a special permit. The army would send a soldier to accompany us. </p>
  <p>China30s: What is life like on the island? </p>
  <p>Yao Mao: Everyone on the island is a fisherman. During the day, they stay in their room to rest, or just kill time - and get out in the early morning and evening to fish. They generally stay there for three to six months. The children go to school on the mainland, and there's very few women around. We did the WeChat shake there, and couldn't reach out to out mainland friends. </p>
  <p>China30s: Is it easy to get internet to work there?</p>
  <p>Yao Ma: There was 3G internet on Yong Xing Island, but only the post office had a broadband connection. To transfer our data back to the home base, we had to use their internet. We gave the post office clerk a box of soft drinks and he let us in. He was very picky about the drinks, saying that he preferred TongYi iced tea to KangShiFu iced tea. The guy only worked once a week and spent most of his time playing Mahjong on the internet. His life was quiet and yet difficult.</p>
  <p>Before we left the island, the SanSha Military sent an officer to check our pictures for confidential information. If our pictures showed any part of any secret military structures, they would make us delete them. We typically took over 30 pictures of any given place to make a panorama, and if they deleted just one we would lose the whole thing. They checked the pictures for more than six hours.</p>
  <p>China30s: After these two projects, did your team get better at the job?</p>
  <p>Yao Ma: We have done very careful work. When I just came to the team, we were still using handheld cameras to take the pictures and there were many errors in the landscape when we tried to put the more than 30 pictures together to form a panorama. Later we studied foreign photographers’ panorama techniques and now I can take the panorama myself with a tripod and even eliminate my shadow from the picture. We are constantly improving.</p>
  <p>As of now our department has handled more than 100TB of data, enough to fill 3200 32GB model Apple iPhones; the total street view data exceeds 2 PB, which is equivalent to 1048576 2GB movies; we have taken more than 20 billion pictures which, if printed as 6-inch photos and lined up head to tai,l could go around the equator 75 times.</p>
  <p>Sandwich: What other values and uses might there be for the street view technology?</p>
  <p>Yao Ma: China has many still unprotected ancient structures and artifacts. We just did a project on the Great Wall of China. Many of the places we chose were unprotected parts of the wall. Those places are all very beautiful but many of them have been damaged greatly in the last half-century. We are making a timeline for the street view there in order to record the changes that are happening to the wall.</p>
  <p>In the last few years, there have been big fires in the ancient city of DuKeZong and LiJiang both in YunNan province. It was very sad to hear that many ancient structures were destroyed in the fire. If we make panoramas of the places beforehand, we can aid the reconstruction of the buildings. Tsinghua University and the LiJiang government have asked us to provide data to aid the reconstruction.</p>
  <p>I think that street view is a good way to record the view of a city as a whole. Street view is a suitable recording method as it records q 360 degree view of a city. With the rapid development of cities today, recording the view of a city has important social and historical meaning. If you think of it from the perspective of our changing country and civilization, street view has even more potential value.</p>
  <p>Our newest project is currently the Sanxia dam on the Yangtse River. It would be great if we were able to do this before the dam was built, but sadly there was not such technology at the time. I also want to cover the ancient city of Loulan.</p>
  <p>China30s: If you have children, will you raise them like your father did yourself and take them to the wilderness to experience different types of life?</p>
  <p>Yao Ma: I can only try my best. It is very hard for us people from all around China to try to survive in Beijing. It will even be hard to enroll my kid in school here. I don't have much plans for the future.</p>
  <p>Last year I got very sick and one of my ears went deaf. After experiencing that, I feel that I need to cherish the present.</p>
<p>Since MaXiao was 4 years old, he started to go to Mongolia with his father to observe birds. When he was 27 years old, he stayed at Mongolia for three months, 采集滇藏线和珠峰大本营的地貌街景,又到了中国最南端的城市——三沙市采集了西沙群岛的街景。接下来,他又奔赴长江三峡带回了江面的街景。他穿梭于全国各地,一直在路上。</p> <p>If I did Biology like my father, I don't think I would have the opportunities I have today. In the street view job, I think I still have a great future.</p>
<p>文/李梓新</p>  
<p>一架小型遥控四轴飞行器的骨架摆在巨大的办公桌上,周围散布着一些黑色的零件残骸。几天前,马尧把它升上半空,上面架着一台SONY相机,利用它来航拍空中全景。结果飞到50米高飞行器就失控炸机摔到地上。不过很快,部门领导又给他批了一架新的。</p>  
<p>马尧今年27岁,两年前加入了腾讯街景项目,负责其中的口碑项目,用他的话说,是在部门里“拉仇恨”的工作。他先后在西藏呆了三个月,采集滇藏线和珠峰大本营的地貌街景,又到了中国最南端的城市——三沙市采集了西沙群岛的街景。接下来,他又奔赴长江三峡带回了江面的街景。</p>  
<p>他用全景拍摄的方式,为这些景点留存影像,再拼接成全景画面,让在电脑这一端的网友也能身临其境。同时,也为这些每天都在发生变化的景观保留历史档案。</p>  
<p>马尧并非地理或者测绘专业科班出身,而是2009年毕业于四川大学新闻系。但他从小便跟随在中科院生态地理研究所当教授的父亲积累了丰富的野外经验。从4岁起他就随父亲在新疆各地观测候鸟。大学时更自己和同学闯荡西藏。</p>  
<p>家族里好多人都做生物方面的研究,可是马尧高考没考好,没能到北京。他选择了到川大读新闻系,并喜欢上了摄影。这条跨界的道路塞翁失马。毕业后,他到北京加入了《中国国家地理》杂志,在那里,他也有不少机会穿梭于全国各地。</p>  
<p>他对摄影和地理的爱好最终在“街景”这个方向上结合到一起。自谷歌于2007年5月25日推出街景功能以来。这一应用已经拓展到全球40多个国家超过3000个城市。而在中国,却仅涵盖了中国成都大熊猫繁育研究基地。腾讯SOSO地图在2011年底推出了街景服务。后来百度地图在2013年8月加入了街景竞争。</p>  
<p>马尧的父亲给他起这个名字,是希望他能“骁勇善战”,他觉得自己也属于勇敢的人,敢于尝试不同的东西。因此,从小被蛇咬过,在新疆博斯腾湖观测天鹅时差点溺毙,在西藏阿里无人区翻过车,前后车相距20公里无人救援……这些生死经历使他更加懂得珍惜当下,手腕也缠上了一串西藏活佛送的佛珠。</p>  
<p>三明治:讲讲你小时候的生活经历吧。</p>  
<p>马尧:我是新疆乌鲁木齐人。我的父亲叫马鸣,是中科院新疆生态与地理研究所的教授,他主要从事野生动物保护,鸟类分类学,生物多样性与动物生态学方面的研究工作。。我在研究所大院长大,从小我的寒暑假都是陪父亲在野外出差做研究,第一次是在4岁的时候,跟父亲到巴音布鲁克看天鹅。我从小养过的动物包括老鹰、猫头鹰、狐狸、刺猬等等。比如要帮老鹰清理粪便,它的粪便是稀的,而且具有腐蚀性,还是喷射出来的。我就被鸟粪喷过好多次。</p>  
<p>著名科学家彭加木带回的中国第一个野骆驼的标本,就放在我爸爸工作单位楼里的大厅,我从小就抱着那骆驼大腿骨骼转着玩。那时彭加木教授已经消失在罗布泊中了……周围的邻居都是老科学家,随手就会送我两块化石。我就是在这样的环境长大的。</p>  
<p>三明治:大学毕业后你是怎么得到加入《中国国家地理》的机会的?</p>  
<p>马尧:大学里我也经常出去玩,大二的时候就和同学到西藏玩了一圈。所以我的野外生活和工作的经历比较丰富。</p>  
<p>大学毕业的时候,我本来是想申请到美国读书的,但当时的女朋友考上北京的研究生,我又很幸运地获得《中国国家地理》的工作机会,我也就来了。当时我投的是《中国国家地理》广告部下面的策划部。因为编辑部太难进了。</p>  
<p>在那里,我为一些越野汽车品牌设计一些策划项目,所以我经常在外面跑。在西藏阿里地区就呆了两个月,新疆、内蒙、青海这些地方更是家常便饭地跑,基本把中国渺无人烟的地方跑了个遍。</p>  
<p>后来我对这些商业活动有些厌倦,想做一些纯粹的项目。就离开了《中国国家地理》。加入了腾讯街景。基于以往的野外经历,我负责的是能够去打响腾讯地图口碑的,方便运营传播的项目。</p>  
<p>三明治:一到腾讯就做滇藏线项目?</p>  
<p>马尧:其实我也是因为这个项目的策划才进的腾讯。面试的时候,部门让我做一个进藏采集路线的策划。我提交了之后,他们说我们部门目前还没有人能做这样的策划。后来就比较顺利了。</p>  
<p>我是和两位同事于2012年8- 10月去的滇藏线,我们从云南香格里拉出发,沿着滇藏公路214国道向北前行,并在214和318两条国道的交汇处芒康转行,途径左贡、八宿、波密、林芝、日喀则、拉孜、定日等十多个大小城市一路向西开进。来回走了9000多公里。我带上了当时整个部门唯一的全景云台,它是拍摄精细化街景必不可少的设备。我们找了一个藏族司机,我们一块在西藏呆了三个月。去了珠峰大本营,去了海拔5300米的拉姆拉错,这是国内目前街景采集海拔最高的地方。我去过七八次西藏,对高原适应良好。我同事高原反应就很厉害,海拔一上4500就脸色苍白,一点力气都没有。</p>  
<p>三明治:有哪些比较难忘的经历?</p>  
<p>马尧:去珠峰大本营的路,全是搓板路,我们的车载摄像机都颠散架了,只剩一个固定螺丝,有一个相机都颠掉了出来。当时我们到珠峰大本营还有6.9公里的路程。珠峰大本营的高清街景数据就像一个冲刺,开车走了那么远,最后这6.9公里只能自己背负相机来采集。我们就在那海拔5200米的地方背着30斤的街景设备一路走一路拍。幸亏遇见了一个往珠峰大本营运水的摩托车,让他带上我才搞定了这6.9公里,现在大家在腾讯地图上看珠峰大本营附近的街景,还可以看到地上摩托车拍摄街景的影子。在高原烂路上的颠簸经常会造成设备GPS定位中断,造成拍摄的街景无法和地图准确匹配,导致。好多次为了补全采集轨迹,让道路街景采集更加完整,我们经常折回原处补拍,这也是为什么我们在4000公里的有效采集上却行走了9000公里的原因。</p>  
<p>三明治:还碰到哪些困难?</p>  
<p>马尧:人和机器都要克服高原反应。电池在低温下也工作不灵,要备好充足的电源。有一次在西藏定日,没有暖气,室内外都零下10度,我们穿一身秋装被冻得哆嗦,喝了几壶酥油茶,晚上盖了三层被子才熬过来,早上睡醒放在床头的矿泉水都结了冰。</p>  
<p>政策层面也有一些困难。当时管理非常严格。我们的车顶上架上摄像机有3米多高,一个大锅。随便一个关卡都可以拦住我们。我们在林芝就被交警要求拆卸,拆下来再装上就要3个多小时。从珠峰大本营往回撤,也被边防武警拦住了。我们只能递烟,给他们看我们拍的东西,还给他们送Q币,开通黄钻、绿钻会员才过关。幸亏他们都玩QQ。</p>  
<p>三明治:这次拍摄出来的街景市场反响如何?</p>  
<p>马尧:当时做出来后,因为各种原因,到了2013年2月才正式上线。过程中有审批风险。国家测绘局、军队在我们上线之前都要审。他们会把他们认为敏感的地方砍掉。这样我们拍的连续的道路有时就中断了。我们其实是全世界第一个拍摄到珠峰大本营街景的团队,可惜因为这样那样的耽搁,就在我们上线之前几天,谷歌从珠峰大本营南坡尼泊尔那段采录的街景上线,引起了很大的反响。那时我们还没开始宣传。这还是比较可惜的。现在我们有专门的运营团队了。</p>  
<p>三明治:后来的三沙项目又是怎样启动的?刚好官方最近发布了中国竖版地图,也使南海诸岛的情况更清楚地呈现到公众面前,但岛屿上的情况究竟怎么样,相信很多人没有去过,也是非常好奇的。</p>  
<p>马尧:我们是通过腾讯公益基金会联系到南海舰队,为我们的采集提供了帮助。一开始我比较贪心,提交了20多个岛的名单,舰队只同意我们先到三沙市政府所在地永兴岛去。我们坐的是永兴岛的补给船“琼沙三号”,从海口出发,下午出发,第二天一早到。我们是跟一批广东省文化单位组织的书法家一起去的。</p>  
<p>三沙市的管辖范围其实只是一条街,街上有一个小餐馆,两个超市,一个银行,一个邮局,一个保险公司,一个市政府。其余的地方都是军事管辖区,没有军方许可是没有作用的。所以我们比书法家们幸运,他们只能呆一天就得走,我们住了10几天,拍摄了七八个岛。</p>  
<p>我们是6月份去的,天气很热。晒得浑身皮肤浮肿,蜕皮。长袖也穿不住,太热了。白天在街上是看不到人的。去别的岛都是自己找渔民租船。每去一个岛要开一个证。军队还派了一个战士一直跟着我们。</p>  
<p>三明治:岛上的生活状态是怎样的?</p>  
<p>马尧:岛上都有渔民的,他们白天都在房间里休息,看碟消磨时间,清晨和傍晚打鱼。他们在那里一般呆三个月到半年。孩子在内陆上学,女性也很少。我们在那用微信摇一摇,摇不到大陆的朋友。</p>  
<p>三明治:在那里你们方便使用网络工作么?</p>  
<p>马尧:永兴岛是有3G手机网络的。但是宽带只在电信局、邮局有。我们为了往回传数据,只能提一箱饮料给邮局看门老伯。他说他喜欢喝冰绿茶,不喜欢康师傅,喜欢喝统一的。我们就照办了。他们每周只上一天班,平时在屋里上网打麻将。生活既清闲又艰苦。</p>  
<p>我们要走之前,三沙军方派了几个参谋来审查我们的照片。哪怕一个画面里出现一点敏感设施,他们就删掉。我们一个地点通常拍30多张片子拼接起来,被他们删了哪怕一张,就拼接不起来了。他们一直审查了六七个小时。</p>  
<p>三明治:这两个项目做下来,你们的采集技术有没有改进?</p>  
<p>马尧:我们完成了精细化的采集。我刚来的时候,还是用手持相机来拍摄全景。一个地点拍30多张,拼图出来还有很多错位。后来我研习了很多国外的技术文献,现在可以做到一个人用脚架拍,底下连影子都没有,效果一直都在进步。</p>  
<p>现在我们部门处理的数据量超过100TB,这些数据可以存满3200个32G的苹果土豪金手机;街景数据库容量超过2PB,相当于下载了1048576部2G的高清电影;而拍摄的照片量超200亿张,这些电子照片打印成6寸纸质照片连接起来可以绕地图75圈。</p>  
<p>三明治:街景这个项目接下来有哪些发展和想象空间?</p>  
<p>马尧:我们国家有大量的没有保护的古迹。比如,我们最近在做的长城项目。选取的都是野长城,它们都很漂亮,但是近几十年的破坏比较严重。我们现在正在建立街景变化的时间轴。这样可以把长城在各个时代的变迁记录下来。</p>  
<p>最近几年,云南香格里拉独克宗古城、丽江古城都发生过大火。那些烧毁的建筑很可惜。如果我们提早留存影像,就可以为景观复原建立基础。最近清华大学联合丽江市政府就来找我们要数据,想去做古城复原。</p>  
<p>我觉得街景是对一个城市影像的完整记录。现在的城市变化太快了。街景是我们选择的比较合适的记录方式,可以把一个城市360度拍下来,对于国家、社会变迁都有很重要的历史意义。如果放在国家、民族的角度去考虑,这是一个更大的愿景和情怀。</p>  
<p>我们目前最新的项目是长江三峡。如果能在三峡工程开工之前去拍就好了,可惜那个时候没有这个技术。我还很想去做楼兰古城。</p>  
<p>三明治:以后你有小孩之后,还会像你父亲培养你一样,带他到各种野外环境锻炼么?</p>  
<p>马尧:只能说尽量了。像我们这样没有北京户口的北漂,各方面的难度还是比较大的。小孩子可能都不一定能在北京上学。我们对人生规划不了太多。</p>  
<p>去年我生了一场大病,一只耳朵突发性耳聋。经历过一些跟自己身体息息相关的事情以后,就会觉得要珍惜当下。</p>  
<p>像我父亲那样做生物研究的道路,我可能回不去了。现在这个街景领域,我觉得还是有不少机会的。</p>  

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About julien.leyre

French-Australian writer, educator, sinophile. Any question? Contact julien@marcopoloproject.org